Posts Tagged Edith Wharton
As an English major at a women’s college (Simmons College in Boston), I didn’t read as many women authors as you’d think. I remember a Victorian Experience class with George Eliot as one of the authors along with Thomas Hardy and Charles Dickens, naturally. I took a wonderful summer course at Emerson College that included Edith Wharton on the syllabus and I immediately fell for her. Upon graduating I’ve made up for not reading that many female authors and likely read more female than male authors. As with any business, I know that the literary world’s filled with many more big-name male authors and lesser-known female authors. More literary prizes go to men than to women. Female authors usually get pushed into the “women’s fiction” a.k.a. “chick lit” genre whereas men nearly always write literary fiction, mystery/thriller and nonfiction. There’s little parity. So I’m all for this #ReadWomen2014 movement.
Here are 25 of my favorite books by women, a mix of classic and modern, if you need some reading suggestions:
1. Glimpses of the Moon by Edith Wharton
2. The Song of the Lark by Willa Cather
3. A Gate at the Stairs by Lorrie Moore
4. Journal of a Solitude by May Sarton
5. The Heart is a Lonely Hunter by Carson McCullers
6. Possessing the Secret of Joy by Alice Walker
7. The Emperor’s Children by Claire Messud
8. Intuition by Allegra Goldman
9. Ghana Must Go by Taiye Selasi
10. The Lowland by Jhumpa Lahiri
11. Portrait in Sepia by Isabel Allende
12. The Good Earth by Pearl Buck
13. The Revolution of Every Day by Cari Luna
14. The Group by Mary McCarthy
15. The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath
16. Driver’s Seat by Muriel Spark
17. The Vagabond by Collette
18. The Education of Harriet Hatfield by May Sarton
19. Agnes Grey by Anne Bronte
20. The Poisonwood Bible by Barbara Kingsolver
21. Possession by A.S. Byatt
22. Don’t Cry by Mary Gaitskill
23. Oranges are Not the Only Fruit by Jeanette Winterson
24. The Wholeness of a Broken Heart by Katie Singer
25. On Beauty by Zadie Smith
Jennie Fields is the author of The Age of Desire, a novel that imagines the details of the affair between Pulitzer-prize winning author Edith Wharton and journalist Morton Fullerton when Edith was 45 years old. The affair took place mostly in Paris. It ultimately affected Edith’s relationship with her husband Teddy Wharton and her best friend and literary secretary Anna Bahlmann. The Age of Desire is told through Edith’s and Anna’s eyes.
Fields received an MFA in creative writing from the University of Iowa Writers’ Workshop and is the author of three other novels, Lily Beach, Crossing Brooklyn Ferry and The Middle Ages. An Illinois native, she spent many years as an advertising creative director in New York and currently lives with her husband in Nashville, Tennessee. Jennie spoke with me by phone last week. Read more information on her website.
Amy Steele: When did you first become interested in Edith Wharton?
Jennie Fields: I was probably in my early 20s when I first discovered her and the minute I did, I felt this tremendous kinship with her. Her books thrilled me and I never tire of reading them and rereading them. I discover something new. There’s always something new. Now you can get e-books that haven’t been in print for years through the Guttenberg Project. I never ever run out of new things to learn from her work.
Amy Steele: Your agent gave you this idea for this novel when you were in Paris.
Jennie Fields: It’s all true. It’s one of those aha moments.
Amy Steele:She suggested you write about your favorite author Edith Wharton but how did you decide what to write about?
Jennie Fields: I knew only vaguely about her life at that point. I knew she’d had an affair. I immediately got every book I could find about her—there were a number of biographies. I just started reading everything. I narrowed down a part of her life. I clearly wanted to write about her relationship with Fullerton because not only were the letters available but her love diary was available. There was one part of her life where she wrote a diary on a daily basis where you could really get a sense of what she was going through.
Then I had a sense that you needed to see her from the outside as well. I decided I wanted a secondary character. I identified Anna Bahlmann and no one had really written anything about her. She clearly was important to Edith. She was with her for years on and off. It was serendipity that her letter came up for auction. I went to my computer and put in Anna Bahlmann and that week at Christie’s, letters that had been in an attic for over 100 years, that nobody had read from Edith to Anna, were going to auction. What a thrill. I ran over to Christie’s. They let me look at the letters. Everything I’d surmised about the relationship was true. It gave me insight into how Anna fit into Edith’s life. I loved that there was a counter-relationship not just with Morton (Fullerton) but with someone who loved Edith more than Morton ever did.
Edith couldn’t have been an easy person to live with. By many accounts Edith was very imperious and difficult. She was up against a world where women didn’t succeed and she was determined to succeed. Anna was a good way to look at that.
Amy Steele: I was confused with the finances in the novel. Edith married Teddy for money at the beginning but then he stole from her trust fund later on.
Jennie Fields: The majority of the money that built the Mount and that Teddy stole from was money from her books. She was tremendously successful with her books. People don’t really recognize how successful she was. Really stunningly successful. She had way more money than him. [Teddy] was never a wealthy man; he was just an appropriate man.
Amy Steele: That’s too bad because she should have married Walter Berry.
Jennie Fields: She really should have married Walter. And when you read the House of Mirth you know that Selden is based on Walter. He’s just a penniless lawyer. He clearly loved her but didn’t declare himself and he wasn’t wealthy enough. And when he was, she was married to Teddy Wharton.
Amy Steele: She did divorce Teddy.
Jennie Fields: She finally divorced Teddy, in 1911 or 1912, at Walter’s behest because he was so dangerous.
Amy Steele: Sounded like a manic-depressive with no treatment.
Jennie Fields: They said he had gout in the head. And hot springs was all they could recommend.
Amy Steele:Amy: So I’ve read A Backward Glance but no biographies on Edith Wharton.
Jennie Fields: What’s interesting about A Backward Glance is it’s how Edith wants others to view her. She cut out Anna. She said she taught herself everything and no one encouraged her to read. Now we know from these letters that Anna saved that Anna encouraged her to read all the time. Even her parents were much more encouraging of her as a writer than she ever let on. She wanted people to believe she was born from her own power and that nobody encouraged her. It really wasn’t true.
Amy Steele: What do you really like about Edith Wharton?
Jennie Fields: The thing that draws me to her is that she always writes about people who are caught in the net of society’s expectations. They fight against that and often they don’t win.
A good example of that is Lily Barth [The House of Mirth]. One of the reasons why that book is so beautiful is that the tragedy of it is it’s her better nature that kills her. If she was a better person she would have gone ahead and married someone wealthier. She was too bright and too good to marry these wretched people.
And Newland Archer in Age of Innocence. He is told he is supposed to marry May and stay with May and he falls in love with Countess Ellen Olenska. It’s not what he’s slated to do. But he can’t fight society. He’s exhausted and can’t fight society.
But Edith herself was told she couldn’t do what she wanted to do and she did it anyway. The only thing she never succeeded at was love until she was 45 years old. Of course how well did she succeed but at least she found passion.
Amy Steele: Do you think Edith was that insecure in her relationship with Morton Fullerton? It was so uncomfortable reading some of it.
Jennie Fields: Those were her real letters and if you read the diary and the letters just on their own you will find how she was tremendously insecure and she really abased herself in front of this man who was not worthy of her. It’s painful to read but it’s the truth. There were moments when it was hard to write that book because I had to make Edith less heroic. She also didn’t sleep with him for a very long time. Probably longer than I’d like to go with fictionally but I had to go with the truth.
A: She wrote such strong female characters. Vulnerable but strong.
Jennie Fields: It’s true. Her mother never made her feel she was attractive in any way which I think made her prey to his interest in her. She was extremely girlish in her figure. Had gorgeous hair and had tremendous bearing. She held her back straight, her neck long. And she was tall for that era.
Amy Steele: what do you think attracted her to Morton?
Jennie Fields: He was extremely charming, very intelligent and very attractive. He had lovers of both sexes who could hardly say goodbye to him and he kept the letters to prove it. He must have been incredibly charming. She’d never had anybody pursue her like that before. She was pretty intimidating as a woman. A lot of men were not attracted to a very intelligent woman. He was attracted to her, he wanted her. He paid attention to her. And that was pretty heady stuff to her.
Amy Steele: What do you think Morton saw in her?
Jennie Fields: She was older, successful. He was drawn to success, fortune, fame. He saw her as a mark.
Amy Steele: Why hasn’t much been written about Anna (Bahlmann) up until now?
Jennie Fields: Anna said in a letter to her friends and to her family that all she wanted in her life was to make Edith’s life easier. I started to wonder why Edith would say in one summer ‘I can’t function without Anna. Where is Anna?’ and then the following summer she sent her away and then she sent her away again. I had to make my own conjectures.
Amy Steele: How fun is it to do that?
Jennie Fields: Well it makes a whole cloth for those who want to read it. So I really enjoy that but I want to tread lightly and carefully because I don’t want to misinterpret things. I wish the whole story were there and I could tell it exactly as it was but I can’t. I have to create scenes that make you understand why something may have happened.
Amy Steele: What was your greatest challenge in writing this novel?
Jennie Fields: Trying to tell a story that was as close to history as possible but trying to make you feel it. Sometimes I had to create my own answers and had to make sure it was credible. It’s so telling that she could be so powerful in the world but in the face of love she was really cut down.
Amy Steele: From the novel it sounds like she left The Mount and became an ex-pat and wanted to live in Paris.
Jennie Fields: That’s what happened. They built The Mount and they ended up moving to the suburbs of Paris and she won the French Legion of Honor for what she did during WWI and was buried in Versailles. She spent the rest of her life in Paris. I think she believed that American life was stifling and so prescribed that there was no room for her especially after she divorced Teddy. She was afraid to go back to America. By the 20s things have changes tremendously and she went to Yale University to get an award and it was her last trip to America. She just thought it was provincial.
Amy Steele: How was she able to write about New York society so well?
Jennie Fields: In The Age of Innocence she writes about society in the 1870s so it’s the past. She asked her friends what was going on. But a lot of her later stuff she’s conjecturing and that might be why it’s not as popular because it’s probably not as accurate.
The Age of Desire by Jennie Fields. Publisher: Pamela Dorman Books (2012). Biographical/historical fiction. Hardcover. 352 pages. ISBN: 978-0-670-02368-4.
I fell in love with Edith Wharton’s writing in college when I took a summer class that focused on four women including Edith Wharton and Willa Cather, now two of my favorite authors. Interestingly I’ve failed to read any biographies on Edith Wharton, although I visited the Mount in Lenox and read Wharton’s autobiography A Backward Glance. I posted my find of a used copy of The Mother’s Recompense to Twitter and made acquaintance with Jennie Fields. How delighted I was to discover that The Age of Desire came out in August.
The Age of Desire imagines the details of the affair between the successful author and younger journalist Morton Fullerton which affected Edith’s relationship with her husband Teddy Wharton and her best friend, former governess and literary secretary Anna Bahlmann. The story is told through Edith’s and Anna’s eyes. This novel places the reader partly in an Edith Wharton novel and partly in her parlor. I didn’t want it to end. It’s well-researched through Fields’ access to letters from Edith Wharton to Anna and her lover Morton as well as other biographical materials. It sparkles with details from the Gilded Age.
Fields fills in the gaps with imagined scenes and conversations between Edith and Anna and Edith and Morton as Edith embarks on a late-blooming passionate affair at age 45. While Edith travels from her estate the Mount in Lenox, Massachusetts to her ex-pat lifestyle in Paris, her opulent lifestyle and literary and artistic friends fill the pages of this novel. Fields also provides wonderful information about the various novels that Edith Wharton’s working on at the time, such as The Fruit of the Tree and Custom of the Country—a real treat for bibliophiles and Edith Wharton fans. It’s fascinating to imagine how she developed characters and ideas. One of the best novels I’ve read this year, Fields deftly chronicles Edith’s heartbreaking journey for a handsome cad unworthy of her affections, heart and certainly her mind.
FTC Disclosure: I received this for review from the publisher.
Make It Stay by Joan Frank. Publisher: The Permanent Press (March 30, 2012). Literary fiction. 978-1579622275. Hardcover. 160 pages.
It was one of those afternoons the townspeople cherish about autumns here: sky a deep, aching blue, motes of gold in the air—so lovely, Cass allowed to Neil, she had considered taking the day off. Leaves had begun to flush crimson, wine, umber; days filled with a warm-sugar smell. Around and through lazed scents of cola, hot pretzels, smoke from leaf fires (still legal), cut-grass, geraniums. Tips of trees barely stirred.
As a Muriel Spark fan I like short novels. They’re not easy to write. a writer must possess exemplary writing skills. There’s less time for character development, establishing setting and point of view so the writing must be precise and solid. Make It Stay contains lovely writing and vivid descriptions. Author Joan Frank writes exquisitely and unpretentiously. No need to read this novel with a dictionary at the ready but it’s not overly simple either. The sentences are so well-crafted that I wanted to re-read many of them and sometimes did.
Neil, now married to Rachel, is best friends with Mike who is married to Tilda. At the beginning of the novel, the reader finds Neil and Rachel preparing for a dinner party. Rachel asks Neil to tell him about Mike and Tilda. Rachel likes Mike well enough and perhaps mostly due to her husband’s long-lasting friendship with him. She doesn’t particularly care for Tilda. The rest of Make It Stay elucidates Neil and Mike’s friendship, Mike and Tilda’s marriage and Neil and Rachel’s marriage.
They are seated before someone’s desk, as if they were applying for a loan when the camera caught them. Mike, of course, is a smirking satyr, ready for mischief and excess. Tilda looks wary, hair the same lank brown, still cut like a friar’s, as if the scissors had traced the rim of a shallow bowl placed at the back of her head. You could not call her beautiful, but her face had the smoothness of youth, her features pert. A kind of cute tomboy, except for the affectless gaze—unblinking.
The story of Tilda and Mike bears resemblance to Edith Wharton’s Ethan Frome. It’s that twisted and dark. Tilda’s dour and, according to Rachel, rather smelly—suffering from rank body odor and halitosis– while Mike’s a gregarious hedonistic flirt. Both have terrible habits from smoking and drinking too much to Tilda’s propensity to steal. Neil’s a responsible, hard-working attorney and loyal friend. [“Neil’s born to draw people together.”] Rachel’s a quiet, faithful writer. [“When exactly is a good time to say, oh by the way, I hate cooking and most forms of social life?”] Make It Stay is about friendship, love and mortality and everything that those things entail. It’s such an enchanting book that I will return to it just to read random passages.
A kiss can be an IOU, or the end of a love affair. A kiss can last for eons. A kiss can be longer and stronger than a fuck. A kiss has a history and a future.
I am a 37-year-old unemployed loser.
–Bobby Walker [Ben Affleck]
I’m a highly qualified applicant for that position!
Glad I got that PhD.
Verisimilitude is the truth of art, and any convention which hinders the illusion is obviously in the wrong place.
Length, naturally, is not so much a matter of pages as of the mass and quality of what they contain. It is obvious that a mediocre book is always too long, and that a great one usually seems too short.
–Edith Wharton, The Writing of Fiction
And in the deep night
I felt my mother rise,
And stare down upon me
With love in her eyes.
I saw my mother sitting
On the one good chair,
A light falling on her
From I couldn’t tell where.
And not a day older,
And the harp with a woman’s head
Leaned against her shoulder.
Her thin fingers, moving
In the thin, tall strings,
Many bright threads,
From where I couldn’t see,
Were running through the harp-strings
And gold threads whistling
Through my mother’s hand.
I saw the web grow,
And the pattern expand.
— from The Ballad of the Harp Weaver by Edna St. Vincent Millay
1920–Edith Wharton– first woman to win the Pulitzer Prize in Fiction, Age of Innocence
1921—Fanny Brice– becomes Broadway star in Ziegfeld Follies
1922—Emily Post– published first edition of etiquette book
1923—Edna St. Vincent Millay– first American woman to win Pulitzer Prize in Poetry, The Ballad of the Harp Weaver
1924—Edna Ferber– wins a Pultizer Prize for So Big
1925—Carole Lombard– has first starring role in a film, Love Before Breakfast
1927—Martha Graham– founds the Martha Graham School of Contemporary Dance in New York
1927—Dorothy Parker– becomes staffer at New Yorker
source: Herstory by Charlotte S. Waisman and Jill s. Tietjen